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The Chains of Black America: The Hammer of the Police; The Anvil of the Schools

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The Chains of Black America: The Hammer of the Police, The Anvil of the Schools is a description of how two great institutions of American government-the education and criminal justice systems-often hinder, rather than enable, the achievement of equal opportunities for the descendants of enslaved Africans. The book is about the caste status of African Americans, rather than about "people of color," or impoverished Americans, because of the specific history of African Americans and the way in which their oppression affects others. It is perhaps not too much to say that until descent from enslaved Africans is no longer a cause for lack of equality of opportunity, the United States will never be a just society. Each chapter, beginning with the national survey in Chapter One, includes demographic, health, income, wealth, and economic mobility data, followed by sections on the criminal justice and education systems and concluding with attempts at modeling a more equitable society. This modeling is extended nationally in a final chapter. There are chapters on eight cities: Chicago, Cleveland, Memphis, Milwaukee, New Orleans, New York City, Philadelphia, and Rochester, New York. Each of these has a significant, highly segregated, African American population. In each, African American incarceration rates are many times higher than those of White, non-Hispanics, and educational outcomes are much less favorable for African American than for White, non-Hispanic, students. There are many other cities where these conditions prevail, such as Minneapolis, Buffalo, Montgomery and Miami, but eight examples should suffice as examples of how caste is enforced in America.


ISBN-13: 9780692369319

Media Type: Paperback

Publisher: Chelmsford Press

Publication Date: 01-30-2015

Pages: 306

Product Dimensions: 9.00h x 6.00w x 0.64d

Michael Holzman is the author of many books, reports, op-eds, and blogs. He is the originator of the Schott Foundation's series of reports on Public Education and Black Males and the author of The Black Poverty Cycle and How to End it and Minority Students and Public Education. In addition to the Schott Foundation he has been an advisor to the Heinz Endowments, the Panasonic Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation, among others, and has worked on reform in school districts from Seattle to Miami.